Since the first cave dwellers banked down the fire with ashes at night, we
have strived (sometimes more, sometimes less) to reduce energy costs. Their
motivation may have been higher than ours, with tyrannosaurs rex chomping around
while they were out collecting firewood.
Even during the 1800's and early 1900's when utility prices were decreasing
(remember utility prices did not start rising until the 1970's), the control of
energy was important. Automatic controls were developed in the late 1800's and a
workable night thermostat was developed in the very early 1900's.
Not until the 1970's, with multiple energy crises, and increasing costs, did
the idea of conserving energy become really important to building owners. A
profession was born (the Energy Manager), and equipment developed to reduce
costs. Out of all this, the most important new technology was the advent of the
computerized Energy Management System. These early systems provided centralized
control, unattended, with electronic accuracy. However, these early systems were
bulky, not user friendly, unreliable, and very expensive.
During the 1980's technology changed the face of Energy Management. The
personal computer (PC) and increasing computer literacy of the general
population was responsible for improving the performance of Energy Management
Systems in the area of increasing complexity and paradoxically, easing the use
by the operator. However, the systems stubbornly refused to yield to major price
reductions and even more complete user friendliness.
Now it is 2001 and looking back at the history of Energy Management Systems
in the 1990's who could believe that you had to punch keys to get data in and
out of the machine -- how archaic!
Let's take a look at just some of the more mundane features of today's
systems that, except for a select few brilliant and farsighted individuals (such
as the author), were not even being considered just ten years ago.
» BACK TO TOP
IntroductionThis paper is written in an attempt to predict what an
Energy Management System in the year 2001 might look like. The author has used a
combination of fact, speculation, and a sprinkle of science fiction to take
today's Energy Management System through ten years of evolution to the year
2001. Although I consulted with the Research and Development Department of the
major Energy Management System suppliers and several smaller companies'
principles, the predictions contained herein are my own, based upon that
research. The predictions are also based upon an owner's and a specifier of
Energy Management System's desire (the author) to solve some of the shortcomings
of today's offerings. I want to thank all who suffered through incessant
questioning in my quest for the future. Thank you.
» BACK TO TOP
Computing Cost/PerformanceThe single most important reason that the
Energy Management System of today is even possible is due to the invention of
the computer and the dramatic drop in price with a corresponding increase in
A summary of the author's approximation of price and performance is tabulated
ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
YEAR CPU COST BYTES COST/MEGABYTE COMMENT
1970 $50,000 16000 $3,125,000 Mainframe
1975 $20,000 32000 $625,000 Minicomputer
1980 $10,000 64000 $156,250 IST PC's
1985 $5,000 512000 $9,766 IBMPC
1990 $1,000 1000000 $1,000 Compatibles
1995 $100 4000000 $25 Micro
2001 $1 1000000 $1 1 Chip PC
The earliest Energy Management Systems were installed in the early 70's
and utilized small "mainframe" style computers that were costly, bulky and hard
to program. The term "user friendly" had yet to be invented. The next generation
(late 70's) graduated to a minicomputer or a vendor's proprietary CPU design.
Finally, someone got around to inventing the PC (Personal Computer) and the
real revolution of computing power for the masses began. My first PC in 1979
consisted of an 8 bit CPU, 4k memory, 4 megahertz, tape recorder, and a
monochrome monitor. When I expanded to 64k, a 5 1/4" disc drive and a printer, I
thought I was on top of the world and at the pinnacle of technology development.
The cost was $3,600. Today, about one half of that cost will buy a tenfold
increase in performance. Sixteen and 32 bit CPU's at 25 to 35 megahertz
utilizing one to four megabytes of RAM, hard drives, laser discs and color
monitors are being offered by dozens of vendors.
In about five years, hi-performance CPU prices should drop to at least $100,
and may approach $10. As these prices drop, you will see more computing power
decentralized from the head end of the Energy Management System. Smart
controllers will, then, be the norm not the new kid on the block.
Now take technology another five year leap - and imagine a $5.00 or even a
$1.00 full function CPU taking up 25% of one large scale integration chip. At
that price, the cost of the box is more than the computer itself. At that price,
everything - motors, HVAC units, VAV boxes, relays, light fixtures, receptacles,
appliances, and maybe even each and every light bulb will contain it's own
uniquely programmed CPU for control.
With all the greatly expanded computing power available at a very low cost,
the next area that must evolve rapidly may also, in some ways, be the biggest
obstacle to overcome.
» BACK TO TOP
SoftwareSoftware development has not kept up with the quantum leaps of
computer hardware evolution. Yes, I know that when compared to the systems of
the 70's, the software of today has improved. Today we have computer graphics
and many more software routines for controlling HVAC equipment. However, the
basic control strategies that I wrote about and presented in a paper at the
Association of Energy Engineers World Energy Congress in 1980 are essentially
the same today as then. These strategies are/were:
The programs of today still primarily rely on the
Energy Management System supplier's programmers to implement the above
strategies, based upon their expertise after reviewing the building. It is rare
(if it even exists) that major changes are made to the software, once installed,
to improve the operations or to provide further energy cost reductions. The
reason for this reluctance to make major changes is the number of hours and cost
for the programmer to set up the system in the first place. Software cost (both
factory and field) for a major Energy Management System may run from 20-30% of
the total system installed cost.
- Scheduled start/stop
- Optimized start/stop
- Temperature compensated duty cycle
- Temperature compensated demand shed
- Temperature reset:
- chilled water
- hot water
- condenser water
- supply temperature
- Night setback
The major breakthrough in both software cost reductions and improvements in
the sophistication of control will be wrought by the computer itself and not the
programmers. Artificial intelligence is a term that has been around for a few
years but by 2001 will be firmly entrenched in our computer culture and Energy
Management Systems. More specifically, expert systems will be developed,
possibly utilizing some form of fuzzy logic, that will self-develop and
continuously optimize control strategies. An expert system is one that has a
comprehensive set of rules in the base operating system. These rules would
generally define how outputs should react to certain input signals. These
signals might come from sensors, the operator or other outputs. But this is not
enough. As self-optimization subroutine would take over and modify the expert
system as the computer itself learns how to uniquely control each building.
Even expert systems can only react to what is happening after it occurs. An,
although these actions occur very soon after the event, that is often not the
optimum situation. Imagine if the system could simulate fully the operation of
the building and could accurately predict exactly what would happen prior to its
occurrence. The level and accuracy of control and optimization of energy use
would be phenomenal. By 2001, all of these scenarios may be commonplace.
» BACK TO TOP
CommunicationsAgain, going back to the earliest Energy Management
Systems, all external devices were hard wired back to the computer. Then a
distributed format evolved utilizing multiplexed signals over a common wire or
even over the electrical distribution system (power line carrier).
The multiplex system did a lot to reduce the cost of wiring input/output
devices. Power line carrier systems have not taken over a large share of the
market due to some earlier reliability problems. Both of these systems have a
common drawback in that the response time goes down as the system gets larger.
The system response time will probably be sped up in the next five years by a
combination of putting more and more computing power out in the remote multiplex
boxes and even in the input/output devices themselves. Also, the throughput of
information can be increased by switching from twisted pair wire signal carriers
to coaxial cables or fiber optics. Still these improvements offer no solution to
high installation cost.
By the year 2001, communication between sensors and multiplex boxes and the
head end system will be by a combination of technologies:
» BACK TO TOP
- Traditional means such as twisted wire, coaxial, etc.
- Non-traditional methods such as:
- radio wave.
Operator/Machine InterfaceFirst there were pilot lights, then single
line light emitting diode displays. Next came CRT's with text only in
monochrome. Today's technology includes graphics and color with live data
updated one a second. But again the programming of this data format takes a
considerable amount of time, effort and cost.
In the future, due in a large part to the increase in computing power and
expert system software, the building's complete set of plans will be loaded into
the computer. On new buildings this will be a simple matter of popping in a disc
from the CAD (Computer Aided Design) system that designed the building. For
existing buildings, the drawings will be scanned into a CAD System and then be
utilized in the Energy Management System. The system will then start to
automatically synthesize this information into formats that ease the operator's
ability to interact with and direct the system.
Multi-media computers will combine video, CD-ROM, audio, text, pictures and
sound to enhance communications and understanding of both the computer and
operator. The system will fully customize this interface automatically for each
and every operator, anticipating what the operator will desire to know and,
then, provide a display/sound environment before being queried.
Supplanting today's operator's interfaces may be a concept called "virtual
reality". This is currently being experimented with major universities and
research corporations. In virtual reality, you no longer are told nor observe
what is happening -- you become part of it. By donning special headsets, gloves
and even a full body suit, the operator will fully experience a building in
operation. After receiving a complaint of a hot temperature, the operator would
zoom immediately to the space to feel and measure the temperature. With a twist
of the wrist, we would, then, be inside the VAV box looking at damper positions,
seeing readouts of air volume and temperatures. The thermostat would be
readjusted while observing the whole system's operation. After the problem is
solved, the operator then moseys over to the machine room and checks the
operation of fans, boilers and chillers. All this without having to leave the
I can envision the following scenario by 2001:
» BACK TO TOP
- An operator wants to add a sensor to previously un-monitored room.
- The operator goes to the storeroom and picks up the $10 sensor.
- When the operator peels off the self-adhesive backing and sticks it on the
wall, several things simultaneously occur:
- Power is supplied to the unit by a built-in solar cell with battery
- The sensor starts broadcasting that it is now alive. This broadcast may
be infrared, radio wave, or microwave.
- The computer recognizes the sensor, assigns a point number internally to
the computer and within the sensor.
- The system will know the location by triangulation of the signal and its
internal map of the building.
- The system will then start a self-optimization routine to discover the
appropriate control strategies to utilize this new sensor.
- By the time the operator returns, the data for this sensor will be fully
integrated with the man/machine interface. Information will be presented to
the operator in the format that the operator prefers without ever once issuing
ConclusionThe history of controls and Energy Management Systems
indicates that the performance has increased more than tenfold each decade. By
2001, wireless communications, self-optimizing software and improved operator
interfaces will far surpass any of our current expectations. The system will be
easier to use, provide better comfort, reduce energy costs and be less expensive
to install. The term Energy Management System will no longer exist. All of this
will be just "business as usual".
© 1991 George R. Owens.
To send comments to George R. Owens, click here:
» BACK TO TOP